Inside each creature with a brain is a model of the world. This model is constantly updated. The better the model the better predictions can be made which increases chances of survival. The base of the model is the preferences an organism has. Preferences decide what is good and bad and the priority of those preferences. It is more important to eat than to read a book so you will change your behavior. After you eat you will start reading the book again. What makes the human brain unique is its ability to form and test hypothesizes of what could happen. The frontal lobes send signals into the perception areas and this recreates the world from the rules built up of how the world works. This is called imagination. This way when you are solving a problem you understand that the goal can be achieved by combining what you know is possible with what is preferable.
There are hundreds of ways to get from point A to B but depending on the environment you may want to get there before the tiger eats you. In your memory is stored everything you have learned so that you have a library of mental tools that can be used. If you have a problem that no tool will fit then you combine tools in new strategies (new imaginations). All that is needed to create machine intelligence are in a module for understanding the rules of how the world works (perception). A module for running simulations through perception (imagination). And a module for selecting the goals (preferences). Preferences should come from socialization feedback, education is how language is learned and science is taught. If a person had their own personal A.I. it would learn to do what the person wants it to do by building a model of the owner. How the owner will behave in all circumstances according to the owner’s preferences and to prioritize what the owner wants most in the long and short term.